World War 1 Memory

What was life like for the women, children and men who stayed at home?

  1. How did men who were not fighting get treated?


During World War One  there were those who were pacifists and refused to have anything to do with the war.

The pacifists were few in number. However, the military and War Office came down on pacifists were great energy.Religion was the main reason why men did not want to join up.

Initially, these pacifists could expect verbal abuse in the street. Later they ran the risk of being assaulted and thrown in jail for the smallest of reasons.

In February 1916, all conscientious objectors had to go before a military tribunal to explain why they believed they should be exempt from fighting. They were given a hard time and one was told that he “was only fit to be on the point of a German bayonet.”

Some conscientious objectors were put into solitary confinement and fed on bread and water. Some senior Army officers called for these men who refused to do anything for the war effort to be shot.

  1. What challenges did people face?

World War I gave women a chance to show a male-dominated society that they could do more than simply bring up children and stay at home.  In World War I, women played a important role in keeping soldiers equipped with ammunition and in many senses they kept the nation moving through their help in various industries.  With so many young men volunteering to join the army, and with so many casualties in the war, a space was created in employment and women were called on to fill these gaps.

World War I was to prove a turning point for women.  Before the war, women had no socio-economic power at all.  By the end of the war, women had proved that they were just as important to the war effort as men had been.  Women found employment in transportation including the railroads and driving cars, ambulances, and trucks, nursing, factories making ammunition, on farms in the Women’s Land Army, in shipyards etc. Before the war, these jobs had been for men only with the exception of nursing.

Life for the children was very tough during that period of time. Children were depressed because their dads and brothers went to war. The problem was also that they could not afford to buy food, or clothing. Children did not know what was going to happen to them. They could wake up and would have to be taken to a new place. Everywhere was very dangerous.

Some men refused to go to war, some of them were stretcher bearers or they peeled potatoes and prepared food for the soldiers.

  1. What advantages were there to being at war?

The war bestowed two valuable legacies on women. First, it opened up a wider range of occupations to female workers and hastened the collapse of traditional women’s employment, particularly domestic service.

The Industrial Revolution grew more powerful each year as new inventions and manufacturing processes added to the efficiency of machines and increased productivity. Since World War I the mechanization of industry has increased enormously.

Kyle Lee and Wade Mansfield.


How is World War I relevant to us today/ By: Tara and Cailtin

When you go home, tell them of us and say
For their tomorrow we gave our today. – John Maxwell Edmunds

Even though the war had finished, its after effects were still felt for quite some time. The losing side, Germany, felt exceedingly angry, as the lost a fair amount of their territory after the war ended, defeating the purpose of which they originally went to war for-to gain more territory.  Even on the winning side, soldiers suffered from shellshock, and felt upset that the propaganda had tricked them into going to war. They also feared for their job security, as the women who had stepped in often opted to keep their jobs, and their newfound liberation, as opposed to going back to what they did before the war. World War I was far more than a war over territory; the opportunities it gave women eventually led to them winning the vote in 1928.The revolutionary way they utilised weapons would be refined, and used again in World War II.

However, it is also important to remember those who died fighting for their country, and those who gave their lives so that others may live. The Remembrance poppy, inspired by Sources B and C, has been worn by the British in the weeks leading up to Remembrance Sunday sine the 1920s. It is a red poppy badge, made of material, and the proceeds now go to helping all former and current British military personnel.

Remembrance Sunday, spoken of in Source A, talks about a special memorial service, held on the Sunday closest to 11 November, which is the anniversary of the end of the First World War adversaries. At 11:00am, two minutes of silence are kept to honour the dead. Remembrance Sunday services are usually held by local war memorials, and most British towns have some form of World War I memorial.

Poppies are an important symbol of World War One. In the Second Battle of Ypres, Germany launched the first chemical attack on their opposition. Despite this, the Canadian side won the battle. When they went to bury the dead, the only flower that would grow in the fields was poppy, and it grew with remarkable speed.  They were buried in Flanders Fields.  Source B talks about the poppies growing around the graves in Flanders Fields. Poppies later came to symbolise the dead soldiers, and remembrance of “The Great War.”

Statues are used to honour those who died, and often have lists of the soldiers that died in battle engraved on them. They also serve as a way of remembering the dead.

World War One is important to South African history because we were still allied with Britain at that stage, since we were still technically a colony. Even though many Boers felt animosity towards the British after the Boer War, Jan Smuts and Louis Botha campaigned for South Africa to go and join Britain in the fight, and the strived towards a united South Africa.

One of the most important battles South African soldiers fought was the Battle of Delville Wood.  The South African brigade was ordered to keep the wood, whilst under attack from German forces. They did so, and after six days of fighting, the wood was relieved. Only 750 soldiers out of 3433 remained. This battle went down in history as an example of heroism and self sacrifice in the extreme.  The Battle of Delville Wood was the most costly battle the South African Brigade fought. Source D shows a picture of a Delville Wood memorial. Of the South African soldiers, 146000 were white, 83000 were black and 2000 were coloured.

This year is the centenary of World War One. Around the world, whether in special church services such as Source E, or art display such as Source F, people are making an extra effort to commemorate World War I. In Source E, a candle-lit vigil was held in Westminster Abbey, to remember the 17 million dead. In Source F, a Brazilian artist-Nele Azevedo, placed ice sculpture on public stairs in Birmingham to represent the fallen soldiers. These are but a few of the way the centenary is being commemorated, as well as the usually Remembrance Sunday and poppy wearing.

In short, it’s important to remember World War I, and honour the dead, because it set the ball in motion for a lot of things, and is still very much relevant in today’s times.

Remembrance Sunday

On a cold November Sunday morn, an old man sits a while
Looking though old photographs, he can’t help but smile
They’re all there, all the boys, with hair cut short and neat
Uniforms of khaki, strong black boots upon their feet.
They met as strangers but soon became like brothers to the end
Smiling at the camera, there could be no truer friends.
They all took the Queen’s shilling, went off to fight the hun,
Soon learnt the pain of loss once the fighting had begun.
So many never made it home, lost on foreign shores
Many more were injured and would be the same no more.
The old man’s eyes mist with tears as he remembers every face
Each of his fallen brothers and the killing which took place
He proudly dons his beret, his blazer and his tie
For today he will remember the ones who fell and died.
On his chest there is a poppy, a blaze of scarlet on the blue
He steps out into the cold, he has a duty he must do
Once at the cenotaph he stands amongst the ranks
Of those who marched to war and those who manned the tanks,
He bows his head in reverence, as the last post begins to play
And he wonders what will happen at the ending of his days
Will anyone remember? Will anybody care?
About the lads so far from home whose life was ended there?
I wish that I could tell him, that he should fear not
For this soldier and his brothers will NEVER be forgot
We owe a debt of gratitude that we can never pay
And this country WILL remember them, on each Remembrance day.

Maria Cassee

Source A*- Although this is a modern poem, I think that it has a very valid point about remembrance. Every year on 11 November, a memorial service is held in Britain by a memorial cenotaph put in place to remember those who died for their country. This service is attended by veterans, and family of veterans, and serves to remind people of the sacrifices made in the war.

*Information such as when it was published, and background on Maria Cassee was not available on the internet, however we felt that it would be a shame not to include this poem.

In Flanders Fields

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

Source B- In Flanders Fields, by John McCrae, 1915. McCrae was a Canadian soldier serving in the Second Battle of Ypres. When a friend, Alexis Hamilton, was killed McCrae was asked to conduct the funeral service. It is believed that he wrote this poem the night after the funeral. This poem inspired Moina Belle Michael to write…
We Shall Keep the Faith

Oh! you who sleep in Flanders Fields,
Sleep sweet – to rise anew!
We caught the torch you threw
And holding high, we keep the Faith
With All who died.

We cherish, too, the poppy red
That grows on fields where valor led;
It seems to signal to the skies
That blood of heroes never dies,
But lends a lustre to the red
Of the flower that blooms above the dead
In Flanders Fields.

And now the Torch and Poppy Red
We wear in honor of our dead.
Fear not that ye have died for naught;
We’ll teach the lesson that ye wrought
In Flanders Fields.

Source C- We Shall Keep the Faith, Moina Belle Michael, 1918. It was written as a response to “In Flanders Fields.”Michael campaigned tirelessly to get the poppy as an international remembrance symbol of World War I, and always wore a red poppy brooch to remember the fallen soldiers.

Source D II

Source D- Delville Wood Memorial, Longueval France. South Africa fought on the British side of the war, and one of the most famous battles fought by South Africa was the Battle of Delville Wood. South Africa was told to keep the wood, and even though they did so, at the end of the battle, only 750 out of 3433 soldiers were left standing.

A candle-lit vigil at Westminster Abbey and a “lights out” event have concluded a day of ceremonies marking 100 years since Britain entered World War One.

People were invited to turn off their lights for an hour until 23:00 BST, the time war was declared in 1914.

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, Prince Harry and David Cameron attended a twilight ceremony at St Symphorien Military Cemetery near Mons, Belgium.

The Prince of Wales was at a service in Glasgow, among other commemorations.

The Lights Out event – organised by 14-18 NOW, a cultural programme to mark the centenary – saw households, businesses and public buildings across the UK turn out their lights to leave a single candle or light burning.

The event was inspired by the words of wartime Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, who said on the eve of WW1: “The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime.”

The conflict between 1914 and 1918 – which became known as the Great War – left 17 million soldiers and civilians dead.

Blackpool Tower, Downing Street, Tower Bridge, the Eden Project in Cornwall, the headquarters of the Football Association and the Imperial War Museums in London and Greater Manchester, were among the buildings which took part in the “lights out” event.

The Duchess of Cornwall joined senior politicians – including Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg and Labour leader Ed Miliband – for a service of solemn commemoration at Westminster Abbey.

The service included the gradual extinguishing of candles, with an oil lamp put out at the grave of the unknown warrior at the exact hour war was declared.

Source E-Extracts from a BBC article, published 5 August 2014. It details on of the ceremonies happening around the world to commemorate the centenary. It also goes to show the lasting emotional effects World War One has on people.

Source F III

Source F*- Ice sculptures in Birmingham, by Nele Azevedo, made to commemorate the centenary. She made 5000 and put the on public steps in order to honour th elives lost in the war.

*Source F is our artwork source as we could not find any good commemorative paintings or cartoons and we felt that the ice sculptures were a very interesting means of commemoration.


What was it like for women and man on the home front? By: Caitlin and Tara

What was it like for men and women on the home front?

“Where do all the women who have watched so carefully over the lives of their beloved ones get the heroism to send them to face the cannon? I am afraid that this soaring of the spirit will be followed by the blackest despair and dejection. The task is to bear it not only during these few weeks, but for a long time- in dreary November as well, and also when spring comes again, in March, the month of young men who wanted to live and are dead.” – Kathe Kollwitz, German Artist, 1914

We have always known that being in war has been a traumatic experience for soldiers on the front line but not many people realize that it was just as awful for the men and women on the home front. Life on the home front was only marginally less emotionally taxing than life on the front line. War impacted every man, woman and child. There was a constant threat of bombs, and the ever-pressing fear that your loved one would not come home. A general depression set over the populace, and with rationing, constant worry and general terror, life at home was hardly pleasant.

Men who did not go to war were often looked down upon for being cowardly and weak. They were seen as having no patriotism. Men were treated worst of all by the women. During World War 1 women used to give white feathers to men who stayed behind. These white feathers were a sign of cowardice and pacifism. Being given a white feather was incredibly serious and was a disgrace to be given one.

Women felt as like it was their duty to blackmail men into the military. It was also a form of patriotism. Men felt disgusted by the treatment women gave them but there was nothing they could do about it.

Another method of blackmail involved the women acting incredibly friendly towards the men. They would start walking up to the men with a broad smile on their face making the men think that they knew her. When they were five meters from him they would change their facial expression to a look of disgust. This made them feel even worse as it made them wants to curl up and disappear.

A novel by A.E.W Mason, entitled “The White Feathers” was popular at the outbreak of World War One, and aids this belief. It tells the story of a man, who resigns from the British army and tries to return home from a war in Sudan. He is presented four white feathers; three from his comrades, who think he is a coward and one from his fiancé who breaks off their engagement. In order to win her back he must go back to the army, and eventually prevents the destruction of his unit. Admiral Charles Penrose Fitzgerald used the idea of the white feathers to try and drive able-bodied young men who had not yet signed up into conscripting. On 30 October 1914 Fitzgerald ordered 30 women to present men who were not in uniform with white feathers.

Fitzgerald believed that it would shame men into going to war, as they had “a danger awaiting them far more terrible than anything they can meeting battle.”In a way, The White Feather Campaign gave women a sense of power and patriotism, as even though they could not fight, they could still help out in any way they could, and they almost had a power over the men, as men presented with a white feather would almost certainly then be forced to sign up in the hopes of re-claiming some of their honour.

In Figure 1 we hear about a fifteen year old boy, Ronald Shepherd, who received a total of three white feathers.  In this article we also hear about His friend Bernard Sills who committed suicide after he received a white feather. This article gives us a good idea of how serious it was to receive a white feather. Many people killed themselves because they could not live with the shame of having received a white feather. This also tells us of the age people would receive the feathers. Anyone who was not on the front line would receive one no matter their age or physical condition.

Many young men who had not been conscripted due to failing their medical exam, because of poor eyesight, muscle weakness and suchlike, were heavily ostracised by their peers. Older men felt as though by staying at home they were not doing enough to help their country. It was considered your duty to go off and fight, and men who shirked this particular duty were thought to lack all honour.

Figure 2 illustrates what the shame of not being able to go to war would drive some men to do. Many young men’s families felt that serving for your country was a great honour, and you brought shame not only on yourself but on your family by not being able to join. I am certain that Rudyard Kipling was not the only one to lie and bribe to get his son conscripted, and his story also shows that medical exam sare there for a very good reason.


If any question why we died,

            Tell them, because our fathers lied.

Figure 2- By Rudyard Kipling, in his collection of war epitaphs. It is believed to be written about his son, who was killed in World War I. Kipling believed that there was great honour in fighting for your country. However when his son tried to enlist, he failed medical exams at the navy and military service due to his poor eyesight.  Kipling could not deal with the shame of his son not going to fight, so he asked his friend, Lord Roberts who was colonel of the Irish guard to let his son join. His son was killed in the Battle of Loos, after a shell ripped his face off. It is believed that whilst laughing at a joke, his glasses fell of, and when he went to retrieve them he got in the way of a shell.

There were also pacifists, especially in Britain, who refused to have anything to do with the war. They went to such an extent that they even refused to peel potatoes for the army. The pacifists were not large in numbers. Throughout the war only about sixteen thousand known pacifists were recorded. Despite their numbers they posed a large threat to the army itself.

The main reason these pacifist refused to have anything to do with the army was for religious reasons. On the day that war was declared Bert Brocklesby said, “God has not put me on this Earth to go destroy His children.” With this argument he and many others refused to help the army in any way.

In the beginning of the war all these men could expect was white feathers being given to them and petty verbal abuse on the streets. By Christmas 1914, when it was clear the war was not going to end soon, everything changed. As the number of British casualties rose in 1915-1916 the treatment of these men became harsher. If someone was known to be a pacifist they ran the risk of being assaulted and thrown in jail for the most trivial of reasons.

In Figure 3, we get evidence of the previous statement. Men and women were killed for being Conscientious Objectors and it wasn’t kept a secret either.

There was also a constant fear of being attack or bombed by the opposition.

When the men went off to battle, many of them left jobs behind. Jobs suck as postmen, policemen, factory workers, farm work and suchlike would need to be fulfilled, and the only people left to do them were women. World War I almost coincided with the Suffrage, which had been around since the late 1800’s, but only became more demonstrative in 1903. Emmeline Pankhurst, who was a suffragette leader and a great patriot actually moved to stop the suffrage during the war, as she felt that every citizen should be united under a common goal to defeat their country’s foe.

However as the suffrage put ideas into people’s minds about the capabilities of women, women were allowed to take up these jobs. Source C shows some women policemen, a first for the time. Women taking up traditionally masculine jobs catapulted women’s right to the forefront after the war, and moved the population into the more modern and liberal mindset of the 20s. Source D further proves this point.

“The war revolutionised the industrial position of women. It found them serfs and left them free. It not only opened opportunities of employment in a number of skilled trades, but, more important even than this, it revolutionised men’s minds and their conception of the sort of work of which the ordinary everyday woman was capable.”
Millicent Garrett Fawcett, prominent suffragist, 1920

Figure 4- Quote from a newspaper about how the war began to change people’s opinions about women. See Source C for explanation

World War 1 created many opportunities for women. With most the men on the front lines there was not enough labour force to occupy all the jobs. Women were now employed to do jobs that were previously seen as ‘male’ jobs. Examples being: bus conductors, secretaries, telephone operators, office cleaners, shop assistants, police officers, postal workers and most importantly munition workers.

Figure 5- Photograph of female police officers during World War I. Because the men who had jobs such a postmen, policemen, factory workers and suchlike had gone off to war, jobs previously reserved only for men became available to women. The First World War coincided with the popularization of the Women’s Suffrage, and many women jumped at the chance to finally been seen as a bit more equal to men.

Working in ammunition factories was risky business but it was the most widely spread way of showing their patriotism. It made the women also feel as if they were helping their husbands on the front line.  Over 300 women died from TNT poisoning as well as factory explosions. Some developed lead poisoning or other chemical related diseases. Their hair would fall out and their skin would turn yellow. This is why they got called canaries.  The most dangerous work was filling shells with explosives and closing the shells.

The clothing and shoes were fireproof, as you can see in Figure 6. When the workers went out for their breaks they would have to take off all their fireproof clothing and they put on their outdoor clothing. When their break was over they had to put their fireproof clothing back on and they would be checked for matches, cigarettes, pins, etc. This process was repeated every time the women went on their breaks.

In the beginning of the war there were very few explosions due to the fact that the women did their work very thoroughly but that changed quiet soon. Later on women started getting paid bonuses after they had filled a certain amount of shells. This lead to sloppiness and carelessness. The result of their sloppiness was the shells coming back either to light or too heavy. Therefore, the amount of shells filled and closed daily decreased. Their carelessness also lead to an increase in explosions.

Women now felt like they had a purpose. They felt like they were making a change in someone else’s life instead of just theirs. However these women were looked down upon by society. People, especially men, thought they were too well paid and that they were getting ahead of themselves. Men also took place is strikes because they were jealous and scared they would loss their jobs to be replaced by a women.

Women also worked in the land army. The land army was created to increase farm production to provide the country with more food. Mostly ‘city girls’ joined the land army. Once again men weren’t too happy about this as they believed this would lead to unemployment for the men who came back. Again they also believed women were becoming too independent.

The men and trade unions saw women as a threat to the privileges they had formed over decades. They were indead a threat to the system they were used to. The Qualification of Women Act of 1917 and The Representation of the People Act of 1918 meant that in the general election of 1918 women over thirty years old could vote and be voted for. This was a huge step forward in the liberation of women.

Women writers were also influenced by World War 1. Catherine Reilly’s 1981 anthology,Scars Upon my Heart: Women’s Poetry and Verse of the First World War, is the first study strictly dedicated to examining women’s poetry and prose from World War I. In it, she argues that pieces written by women was overlooked because it was thought that men’s writing was of more importance. Many other historians agree that women had a powerful literary voice, that until about 1980s had been ignored.

The term ‘home front’ carried a gendered aspect that refers to the atmosphere of the war as masculine and the home as feminine. Susan Kingsley Kent argues that, “women at the front represented the war with a tone and imagery “markedly dissimilar” from those at home.” This was reflected in women’s writing.

During the War, the acts of women were being published by women in different forms of media, for example women’s magazines. Due to this women’s writing was more wide spread than most people think.  Poems were published during the war but only one-fifth of those were written by active service members. Nosheen Khan estimates that over one quarter of the poems published during the war was written by women.

British women actively documented the war experience from home and on the battlefield. These works documented experiences these women had firsthand. For example, accounts of interaction with wounded soldiers, life in the trenches, and such like. They are important documents as they provide a new perspective on issues concerning Britain’s role that the documents men wrote did not have. Therefore, poetry and prose produced by women between 1914 and 1918 contributed to a richer and more accurate understanding of the war that we did not have when we just studied the work by men.

One of the greatest fears a female writer had during and after the war was that their works would fall into obscurity. In 1949, Vera Brittain noted that she was anxious that most female literature would not survive because it was overshadowed by the documents written by men. This theory was proven correct, as interest in Women’s writing did not grow until the early 1980s when historians began examining the politics of gender and war.

Feminist historians have claimed that women’s writing from during the time of war gave a more authentic representation of the war. The women who served in non-combative roles such as ambulance drivers, nurses, and munitions workers all provided a unique perspective of life during this time. Women’s writing often repeated the same themes. Women who wrote about war shared themes of patience, loss, and grief.

Children were also affected by war. Many were evacuated into the countryside, even though there was no real chance of aerial bombings. Although evacuations were not as widespread as in World War I, they did occur. Children were mainly sent to rich country homesteads, and were treated more as servants than as guests. Obviously they were taught to be patriotic in schools and suchlike, but one cannot imagine the emotional toll of waving goodbye to your brother, father, uncle, cousin and not knowing if you would see them ever again as they went off to go fight a war that you did not fully understand.

Rationing was also a large part of World War I. At the start of the war, even though there was no real danger of running out of food, panic buying led to DORA (Defence of the Realm Act) implamenting self-imposed rations. However in 1916 actual food shortages were a reality.

In 1916, Germany launched unrestricted “U” Boat (submarine) attacks on enemy ships in the Atlantic Ocean. Britain imported most of their food from America and Canada, meaning that the ships had to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Many merchant ships were lost because of this. In the April of 1916, Britain only had 6 weeks of grain left. As bread was a staple part of most diets, this caused a huge problem.

Figure 7-  A British propaganda poster promoting rationing, created from 1916 onwards. The “U” Boat refers to German submarines. At the beginning of World War I food was not a problem, although the threat of German “U” Boat campaigns led to panic buying food, so DORA (Defence of the Realm Act) introduced self imposed food shortages.  During the war the British imported most of their food, mainly from Canada and America, meaning that the ships had to cross the Atlantic ocean. This caused no problems until 1916, when Germany introduced unrestricted submarine warfare and sank many of the ships carrying food. Food supplies had to be rationed so that nobody in Britain would starve.

DORA tried to introduce voluntary rations, so essentially people would just have to regulate by themselves what they ate, and try to eat less. Source B shows a propaganda poster promoting this. These rations, despite being endorsed by the Royal Family, did not work. DORA also converted a large amount of British land into farm land, as they were working very hard to make sure that nobody in Britain starved.

In conclusion, despite what soldiers such as Siegfried Sassoon thought, people who stayed at home were not oblivious to the horrors of war, and faced many horrors of their own. However nothing is without advantage, and the First World War gave the Women’s Movement the leg up it needed, and when women won the vote in 1928, I am fairly certain the some of the credit comes from how they proved themselves as capable and useful during the war.

How is World War 1 relevant to us today? By Peter D’Aguiar and Joel Kruger



Source A is a picture of a flower, named a poppy. There is much more to this poppy than a bright red colour. This flower is known around the world as a symbol of the brave soldiers who fought in world war one, and a symbol of the many losses that world war one had brought.


Source B is a famous painting, named ‘Gassed’, by John Singer Sargent. This painting was painted in March 1919. It was painted in London, England. This piece was then published to the Imperial War Museum. This painting was created to demonstrate the aftermath of a mustard gas attack during the First World War with a line of wounded soldiers walking towards a dressing station.

by John McCrae, May 1915

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

Source C is a poem named In Flanders Fields. This is possibly one of the most famous pieces of war poetry known to man. It was written by John McCrae, a surgeon in the Canadian Army. He composed this poem while observing the scenes outside a dressing station near Ypres in 1915. This poem was also created to show the brutality and relentlessness of the war.


Source D is a picture of ‘The Centopath’. It was built as a temporary figure, but was permanently built between 1919-1920. It is located in Whitewall, in London. This monument resembles the dangerous, brutal service that the soldiers had done for their country, and honours them tremendously.


Even 100 years after World War one, it still effects our lives dramatically. During this war, there were over 16 million deaths and over 20 million wounded. This tore apart families and left scars that families could never forget.

World war one is remembered in a number of ways. One of which being that on the anniversary of the war, every year, people pin a poppy on their shirts, as seen in Source A. This is a symbol that honours the soldiers of WW1 and commemorates them. Many statues have been created around the globe, in honour of the brave veterans or World War One. One of which being ‘The Centopath’, which is shown in Source B. When seeing the poppies, or statues, one may not think much of it. However, they have a deeper meaning. They resemble the hard work and suffering that the soldiers had to go through for their country.

In South Africa, it is extremely important for us to commemorate World War One. This is because we have to honour and respect the deceased soldiers who had fought in the war. This is because without them, the world would have been a much more different place today. Honouring these heroes is incredibly important.

This year is the hundredth anniversary of the war. Around the world, many things are being done to commemorate this war. More than 1000 poppies will be grown and the church receive a major grant for it’s repairs. As usual, poppies are being worn on shirts. At 11AM, a Cenotaph service is being held on live television. This is an incredible thing to watch, as it commemorates all of the heroes lost in the war, and their service that they did, protecting their country.

The first world war was a brutal, relentless time (as depicted in Source B). The veterans who fought in this war were incredibly brave and courageous. We thank them for their hard work serving their country. They deserve all of the glory that they can get. Although almost none of those soldiers are still alive today, their spirits will always be remembered in our hearts.

Peter D’Aguiar + Joel Kruger


Literary source :

Before Action 

By all the glories of the day  And the cool evening’s benison  By that last sunset touch that lay  Upon the hills when day was done,  By beauty lavishly outpoured  And blessings carelessly received,  By all the days that I have lived  Make me a soldier, Lord.

By all of all man’s hopes and fears  And all the wonders poets sing,  The laughter of unclouded years,  And every sad and lovely thing;  By the romantic ages stored  With high endeavour that was his,  By all his mad catastrophes  Make me a man, O Lord.

I, that on my familiar hill  Saw with uncomprehending eyes  A hundred of thy sunsets spill  Their fresh and sanguine sacrifice,  Ere the sun swings his noonday sword  Must say good-bye to all of this; –  By all delights that I shall miss,  Help me to die, O Lord.

This source by Lieutenant William Noel Hodgson, MC, 29th June, 1916His first action before the last of his life and wrote this poem to die mentality. Prior to his death would like all good things farewell.He died just 23 years old only .


Bone mace right, left short tube Maxim. “Block me and die!”

Launch assault under cover of storm commandos gas.

In World War I, the British in Cambrai battlefield build 381 tanks launched a surprise attack, one day break through three lines of defense within the front pushed to near Mani Iyer after ten kilometers in depth. Ten days later, the Germans gathered commandos launched a counter attack, with smoke and poisonous gas, the front half of the push back within eight kilometers.

Visual source :

Everyone wants freedom, hit your enemy, war is not just a man’s thing, Western civilization needs of every man, woman and child!

Newspaper article :

Food grows scarce

“I am immensely pleased with the support which has been given by the public in very difficult circumstances,” Lord Rhondda said yesterday, in an interview with a representative of The Observer, on the scheme for rationing meat, butter and margarine, which comes into operation tomorrow in London and the home counties.

“I fully recognise,” he said, “the inconvenience and to some extent the privation to which the consumer is put; but in view of the conditions of war in which we are living, it is inevitable. And I am afraid it is no satisfaction to the man who has to go on a ration limited to half the meat he was getting in pre-war times to know that in Germany the average ration is less than half of what he will be getting in this country during the next few months.”

“Will the supplies now be sufficient,” his lordship was asked, “to meet the limited rations; that is to say, will there be 4oz a week of butter or margarine for each person in the country, and 1s 3d-worth of butcher’s meat, plus the amount of poultry (and so on) which may be bought with the fourth or any other meat coupon?”

“I have every reason to hope,” he replied, “that the supply of meat, butter and margarine – though I cannot absolutely guarantee it – will be sufficient to provide the ration which has been arranged.”

“And what is the prospect for the future?”

“I hope a little later on to provide a larger ration of meat for those who are engaged in hard manual labour.”

Everyone should have received a meat and food card from the local food committee and have registered it with his butcher and grocer. As, however, some delays are bound to occur, arrangements have been made for the committees to issue emergency tickets where necessary.

14 million persons in London and the home counties are affected by the scheme which comes into force tomorrow, and next month the rationing of meat will be extended to the whole country. A little patience must be exercised with the butcher. Monday is always a short day with the trade, and many shops are closed. It should not, therefore, be expected that even the restricted rations will be available everywhere tomorrow or even Saturday. It will take a little time to get this gigantic scheme into smooth working order. The Observer, Feb 24 1918

When the First World War, growing food shortages, according to become a great inconvenience, lot of people can’t eat anything and they died .

  1. What was life like for the women , children and men who stayed at home ?


*How did men who were not fighting get treated ?


They can’t not fighting to get treated , they must fighting with the enemies , to get free 

* What challenges did people face ?

  Children and men did not have challenges they still ‘sleep’ 

* What advantages were there to being at war ? 


    Food and Terrain 

Gr.8   Jack chen 

World War One Commemoration: Post 2- Zizi and Michaella

Original Sources

     Source A:

by Robert Nichols


It is midday; the deep trench glares….
A buzz and blaze of flies….
The hot wind puffs the giddy airs….
The great sun rakes the skies.

No sound in all the stagnant trench
Where forty standing men
Endure the sweat and grit and stench,
Like cattle in a pen.

Sometimes a sniper’s bullet whirs
Or twangs the whining wire,
Sometimes a soldier sighs and stirs
As in hell’s frying fire.

From out a high, cool cloud descends
An aeroplane’s far moan,
The sun strikes down, the thin cloud rends….
The black speck travels on.

And sweating, dizzed, isolate
In the hot trench beneath,
We bide the next shrewd move of fate
Be it of life or death.

                        Found on:

I am using this as a source because it is primary source telling how it must have felt for the men in the battle field. Robert Nichols severed in the front-line and I think it would be a trust worthy source it was a first-hand experience he was writing from

Historical Content:

  • This poem was published in 1917.
  • It was written in Britain
  • It was produced by Robert Nichols a war poet and author who served on the front-line

The poem was written to make people aware of what was happening on the front-line.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Source B   



 Found on:

I am using this source because it shows that women where in needed great numbers to work as nurses during the World War One. It shows us that women also had to work on the battle front as nurses for the wounded soldiers.

Historical Content

  • Published/created in 1917
  • It was published in New York
  • It was published by John H with Eggers Co.
  • The purpose was to recruit nurses to help with wounded soldiers from the war.



Source C


Found on: This source shows both the conditions that the men were enduring during the war as well as the fact that women also worked on the front-line.

  • There is no historical context of this picture however the website is Australian speaks of 3000 Australian nurses being positioned wherever service was needed.

Source D

Video source of French Nurse :

I found this source very inspirational as it shows truly the emotion that was bough to people during the time of World War Historical Context

  • The Video was posted on YouTube on 1/10/09 by Russell Tarr.  I think the video was made because the nurse experienced the situation and the circumstances war caused for everyone. I think that her emotional response is something that you can’t see in other sources and that it can give us a lot more information on the effects war had on men and women.
  • The nurse was a visitor at the hospital in 1916


Source E1 and E2


These photographs show us exactly the conditions of the trenches where the soldiers fought from.

Historical Content

  • E1 Unknown
  • E2 A German trench occupied by British Soldiers, July 1916


Additional Sources

Source F


Source G


Source H




Source I


Source J


Question 2

What was life like for women and children on the battle front?


Source F shows us a young boy digging trenches. There were many young boys who went to war and ended up digging trenches. This was because they lacked the skill to fight or were physically unable to carry weapons. The legal age to go to war was eighteen but this was often looked towards the end of the war because of the country’s need for soldiers. In the beginning of the war however children were enthusiastic to join the war and went to enlist regardless. If turned away they would return with forged documents. Their motivation often originated through propaganda.

Children who stayed at home were also affected drastically. In Source I we see a child saying goodbye to his father who is going to war. Many children lost their brothers and father to war. Children had no understanding of what was happening or why. With bombs constantly going off and mothers leaving to work the lives of children was changed. There was also food shortages and rationing and so children became malnourished and there was an increase in disease and even fatality at home away from the front lines.


Women staying at home had to replace men in the work force for example in factories seen in source G, and as farm workers, seen in source I. The country still needed food from farms and arms for the war from factories. Most of the men were at the front as therefor this vital work was left to the women. This resulted in many changes for women. Socially women had to change, weather they were nobility or servants they had to work together. They lost husbands, sons and brothers, which meant they had to cope emotionally to great change and loss. Women had to support their families alone because they no long had support from men.

Source C shows us that women away from home who worked as nurses had to deal with terrible conditions watching men die and not having the skill to help. Source B shows how many women were needed away from home. These women were often giving very little training and learnt on the jobs. These women left there families at home which meant children were left without mothers and fathers leaving them even more eager to enlist as said previously

Question 3

How is World War One relevent to us today?


The Great War is one of the most important events in Britain’s history. The heavy casualties left a huge psychological impact on the British people. They were determined to remember the men and women who served in the Great War. This began with a Peace Parade in July 1919 and then a ceremony every year on Armistice Day. This was 11 November, the day the fighting ended. From 1919 onwards, many monuments, ceremonies and other memorials in different parts of the world have remembered the dead. Acts of remembrance continue today. Armistice Day is now called Remembrance Day. At 11 am, people all over the country stand in silence to remember the dead of the Great War and all other wars.






The Liberty Memorial, located in Kansas City, Missouri, USA, is a memorial to the soldiers who died in World War I and houses The National World War I Museum, as designated by the United States Congress in 2004. Groundbreaking commenced November 1, 1921, and the city held a site dedication. The memorial was completed and dedicated on November 11, 1926.On September 21, 2006, Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne declared Liberty Memorial a National Historic Landmark. The National Liberty Monument is a proposed national memorial to honor the more than 5,000 enslaved and free persons of African descent who served as soldiers or sailors or provided civilian assistance during the American Revolutionary War. The memorial is an outgrowth of a failed effort to erect a Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial, which was authorized in 1986 but whose memorial foundation dissolved in 2005. Congress authorized the National Liberty Monument in January 2013.

The National Liberty Monument..  



The remembrance poppy has been used since 1920 to commemorate soldiers who have died in war. Inspired by the World War I poem “In Flanders Fields”, they were first used by the American Legion to commemorate American soldiers who died in that war (1914–1918). They were then adopted by military veterans’ groups in parts of the former British Empire: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Today, they are mainly used in the UK and Canada to commemorate their servicemen and women who have been killed in all conflicts since 1914. There, small artificial poppies are often worn on clothing for a few weeks until Remembrance Day/Armistice Day 11 November. Poppy wreaths are also often laid at war memorials. This is the poppies that are worn to commemorate solders.


The poem the inspired the use of poppies in the remembrance of WW1 adn the pins that are woen to commemorate soldiers.




The response to the outbreak of the First World War in South elicited different responses from a number of organisations as well as from different sections of the South African society. The South African government under the leadership of general Louis Botha immediately declared the Union’s support for Great Britain and committed itself to come to the defence of the British empire. In this it was supported by the majority of English-speaking settlers, who identified completely with the British Empire. Afrikaners, however, was deeply divided over the war, and a section led by general Koos De la Rey went into open rebellion against the government over the invasion of South West Africa. Amongst African, Coloureds and Indians the elite sections declared their loyalty and became actively involved in recruitment drives among their communities. Featured here are some of the responses.



Over 1000 poppies will be grown and the church receive a major grant for repairs. A candle-lit vigil of prayer and an act of solemn reflection to mark the centenary of the start of the First World War will be held in Westminster Abbey.

 Micahella and Zizi





What was life like for the women, children and men who stayed at home? Project completed by: Camryn Ferns and Carli Costa

History project:

Question 2 – What was life like for the women, children and men who stayed at home?


Source A:


We have chosen this source because it shows how encouraging most of the women were and how they wanted the men to fight for their country on the battlefield. This source, however, does not have any date nor illustrator but was produced sometime during WWI. Source A was produced in Britain and was used to women to persuade the men in their lives to join the armies. We have taken this source from:

Source B:


This source is entitled “Knitting for Victory” and shows the pupils at Adams Elementary School, in Seattle, knitting for the troops. It was produced in 1918, near the end of WWI. This shows how hard the women, and in this case children, were trying to help their loved one and ultimately their country. We have used this source because it shows how the people at home contributed. Also, it shows that they cared about their husbands, fathers, brothers, etc. We found this image at

Source C:


This source was produced during 1915. It was made to show that women were the backbone of the men during WWI as they worked in factories, made ammunition and bombs as well as looked after the household without the men at home. Women worked for long hours, got little pay and then had to go home and look after their kids with no men around. The women were not used to having to do physical labour but eventually got used to it. Even children were forced to help out in factories.

Source D:


We have chosen this source because it demonstrates the bravery and remembrance of the men who fought during the war. The medals and awards were given to soldiers/constables who fought well during battle and deserved recognition. This medal, for example, was awarded to Philip Richer, in 1914, who was a constable in Edmonton. This photo has been supplied by Iris and Mark Bailey.

 Source E:


This newspaper article was produced in November 1914 by an unknown author. We found this headline in the book: Patience Coster, Headlines Of World War I, Evans Brothers Limited, 2005.  This article was produced to show how many British and French casualties had taken so far in the war. We chose this source because it shows how many deaths were caused by WWI and how many innocent people’s lives were affected. It also shows that many men had volunteered for the army.

Source F:



This source is a newspaper article written on the 7th March, 1915. Its illustrator is unknown however we know that it appeared in “Le Petite Journal”, which translates to “The Small Newspaper”. This article was produced in France, and shows that the economic crisis in Berlin led to a massive food riot. Because there was no money, frustration between people on the home front increased. People became extremely hungry (some even starving as seen in source F.2), leading to violence such as riots and fights.

q.2.f.2This source was produced in 1924 by Káithe Kollwitz. We have chosen this drawing because it shows just how hungry the children, and people, of Germany were at the end of the war. Starvation and hunger are challenges that describe Germany during ‘the immediate aftermath’ of WWI. Poverty was another immediate result of the war. Even after the war, the lives for the people who stayed at home were getting worse.

Source G:


We have chosen this source because it is a photograph of a wife and her children that has been sent to her husband (who is at war). Photographs and postcards were an important part in keeping families in touch.  This was produced in London by a professional photographer on the 12th of August, 1917. This source shows that the war split families apart, but spouses did everything to prevent this from happening.  Sometimes, life was force to carry on without the husbands. This can be seen in the picture as the children are growing up without a father figure.

Source H:


We have chosen this source, because it proves that even though the soldiers were away from their families, they didn’t forget about them as many of the men wrote home as often as possible. This source also shows that many of them believed that they were going to die, so they made an effort to write a will. There is no known author for this source, but it is from the website: . This will read ‘In the event of my death I give the whole of my property and efforts to my wife’. It shows that the men cared about their family’s future even though some would not have survived the war. This source is presumed to have been produced in the first few months of the war as many of the men were scared that they would die and nothing would be left to their family.

Back at home, there was constant anxiety about loved ones who were away at war. However, life went on. People had to try to carry on with their lives as normal. Most women and children supported the war and had encouraged men to fight. (Source A) Although women knew that the men in their lives could potentially get injured or die, they did not know just how harsh the conditions at the front were. When men came home on leave, they did not want to worry their families by admitting their fears or by explaining the harsh reality. Men who did not go to war were considered a disgrace to their community. Many women handed white feathers to men who had stayed at home, indicating that they were cowards and that they were not supporting their country. These men, that stayed at home, were often those who were too young, old, or unfit for fighting or those who jobs were essential, such as doctors. Women did not only encourage the men, they also supported the war effort by cooking food for the troops, knitting mittens and scarves, making ammunition for the big guns, and sending bandages to the hospitals. While the men were at war, women kept the household going and made sure that the family was cared for. (Source B) This enthusiasm for the war quickly faded as fighting took its toll. Many people became angry and concerned about the man-slaughter and the effects of the cost of the war on their nation.

When men left for war, many of the women took over their hard-working jobs in factories. Women began hauling coal into powerful factories and became welders and worked at shipyards, at glass factories or chemical works. They worked for long hours, got little pay and had to the physical labour of a man. Accidents were common in factories. (Source C) Often, children were also forced to work in terrible factories as there were not enough people to do the work.

Many schools all over Europe were affected by WWI. Teachers and school masters (men) left to join the armed forces and were therefore replaced by women teachers. These job replacements were important because for the first time in history, women were able to do the jobs that, for centuries, only men could do. Teachers sometimes read out newspaper reports, talking about the war. Schools also helped make mittens, scarves etc. for the troops at war. This can be seen in Source B.

Men who went to war were highly respected because they had stood up for their country and risked their lives so that their country would win. This is shown in the effort that the various communities put in, in order to provide a good funeral, grave or memorial. This was also shown in households when children looked up to their fathers and almost treated them like “royalty”. Most soldiers were referred to as “brave” or “war heroes” and still today, many of their names are remembered and are highly honoured. Soldiers who returned home and fought well, were regarded as important and often received medals and awards for their bravery (Source D). Those who had died were also remembered and appeared in newspaper articles as seen in Source E, where the number of deaths were mentioned, although the soldiers were not mentioned individually by name.

The war even had a far-reaching effect on fashion. During war-time, the men who stayed at home, wore suits with hats. These were often flat caps, bowler hats, round straw “boaters” or brimmed felt hats. Men who were in troops, wore uniforms that were khaki, grey or blue with leather boots containing puttees. (These were leg bindings which protected them against the mud). Steel helmets were worn during fighting and this saved many lives. At the start of the war, women’s dresses were ankle lengths and many wore overcoats. However, during the war, the hems were raised to mid-calf level and many women wore trousers so that manual labour would be easier. Before the war, shoes often had a low heel but these low-heels became replaced with button boots. Children began to wear more informal and active clothes during the war.

In trying to live their normal lives, people who stayed at home had to keep themselves entertained. Many did this by going to music halls and doing outdoor activities such as sport. Cinemas and music also became quite popular. Children’s games were introduced, such as the traditional ‘hopscotch’, as well as many different play toys. Because the television and radio were unknown, at that time, card and board games were played often.

A problem that the people at home faced was not being able to supply enough food for their families. There were many riots in towns as the people staying at home had no food since most of the food was being taken to the troops. Many people were hungry and living on the streets and diseases spread quickly. (Source F.2) Governments encouraged “meatless days” as the supply of meat didn’t meet the demand, as the population around Europe was vastly increasing.

Another challenge that countries faced was the economic crisis as seen in Source F.1. There wasn’t enough money in some countries such as Germany because the country was using most of the money to improve the technology of weapons so that their country could potentially win the war. Countries would do anything to try to win. As a result of the lack of money in countries some of the living conditions for the people who stayed at home became worse. People lost their homes and were living on filthy streets, barely surviving. Although counties might have been winning their economy was failing dramatically.

The war was known to split families apart as the men were risking their lives on the battlefield and their families were at home. They often would go months without seeing each other or in contact with their loved ones back home. Children would grow up not knowing their fathers and often men would cheat on their wives with nurses or other women/men. However, not all men easily forgot about their families. They cared so much of their loved ones that they even put in their will, that all their possessions (when they die) go to their family as seen in Source H.

The main opposition to World War One was socialist movements and trade unions. These Unions fought against encouraging men to risk their lives in battle. This is why some men didn’t go to battle, therefore resulting in a shortage of soldiers. Lack of men meant that armies were desperate for volunteers and therefore a conscription (“law”) was passed, forcing men to join the battle. Before the war was declared, these anti-war groups were strong and powerful, however this all changed when the war started… The unions started backing the governments and supporting the war.  The anti-war propaganda started almost immediately after the battle had begun again. Some of the main oppositions in Europe and America was by anarchist, syndicalist and Marxist groups as well as by nationalists, women’s groups and intellectuals.

WWI even managed to influence writing and poetry. Family responded to letters that the soldiers sent home during their “free time”. These letters or small gifts often contained pictures of the family or souvenirs so that the soldiers would remember what home feels like. (Source G)


Philip Steele, Men, Women and Children in The First World War, Wayland, 2010

Simon Adams, War In The Trenches, Franklin Watts, 2004

Patience Coster, Headlines Of World War I, Evans Brothers Limited, 2005.­_-_Is_Your_Home_Worth_Fighting_For%3F_-_Hely’s_Limited,_Litho,_Dublin.jpg

How is world war 1 relevent to use today ? By: Camilla and Allashay

 How is world war 1 remembered today ?

The world war 1 was very much remembered in Britain. it is the most important events in Britain’s history. the British where determined the men and women that was part of the war.

This started with a peace parade in July 1919, then they carried on with this every year after that called Armistice day. now people call Armistice day remembrance day. On November the 11th  the day the fight ended many people from different countries still have some sort of memory to the dead.

What role to memorials statues and poppies play ?

This shows a memorial for all the soldiers that have died in the world war this is why they call it poppies day or Remembrance day.

Why is it important for us to commemorate the first world war in south Africa ?

This is because after many years the British canalised south Africa.  As well as many people have died in the world war that are south African.

What is being done around the world specifically to commemorate the centenary?

  1.  Commemorative events have been held across Scotland to mark the centenary of out break of world war one.
  2. Every Year there is a special service at Glasgow cathedral was attended by Prince Charles.
  3. The service happens every year were among many events being staged across Scotland to mark 100years since the opening  of hostilities.

Source  A

world war 1

This source is to show that even though the world war has past, they still celebrate it for who has risked there lives for the others around them.

Source B

we will remember

Source B shows no matter who you are every person who has died will be remembered in the world war.

Source C

Family honours the youngest hero1_3000269_tcm11-17765

Source C shows that even young teens can be hero’s for there country’s  that they saved.

Source D

Source C

‘Fly Boys’ is a movie that was released in September 2006, based on the air raids in World War 1.

Source D shows use that even now they make movies to show how our ancestries lived in the time of the war.

Source E

How is World War 1 relevant to us today? By Timothy Boyd, Andrew Ingle and Simon Du Plessis

How is World War One relevant to us today?

By Timothy Boyd, Andrew Ingle and Simon Du Plessis

Sitting 1

  1. How is World War 1 remembered today?                                                       Every November villages, towns and cities have a memorial towards the men and woman who had died in the war.

LOgo 2

We remember World War I as a dirty, very unhealthy war and was mainly fought in the trenches, but it was fought on many other fronts including the air and water.

poppy 3

  1. What role do memorials, statues and poppies play?

poppy 44

A typical example of a memorial is the Cenotaph in London. It was originally a temporary structure but soon became permanent after the soldiers marched past it and looked at it with respect. Senior officers saluted the Cenotaph. It soon became a place where family members came to grief after their loved ones had been killed in battle.

A poppy represents loss and sorrow, both sombre representations. Importantly it allows us to remember all those lost in battle, it’s a time when we can stop and reflect on the true heroic actions that were taken by our country men and women, those that fought for us.

In summary, they help us to ignore the world around us at that moment and just think, remember and appreciate what those soldiers and nurses fought for.

  1. Why is it important for us to commemorate the First World War in South Africa?

It is to remember the men who had sacrificed themselves for the freedom of South Africa and the world. But the whites were sent to fight in the fronts and the blacks were used as logistic support.

The Battle of Delville Wood went down in the history of WWI as an example of supreme sacrifice and heroism and remained the most costly action the South African Brigade fought on the Western Front.
-The Sinking of the SS Mendi – “Be quiet and calm, my countrymen. What is happening now is what you came to do … you are going to die, but that is what you came to do. Brothers, we are drilling the death drill. I, a Xhosa, say you are my brothers … Swazis, Pondos, Basotho … so let us die like brothers. We are the sons of Africa. Raise your war-cries, brothers, for though they made us leave our assegaais in the kraal, our voices are left with our bodies.”

– reputed to be the last words of Rev Wauchope Dyobha on the sinking ship SS Mend

On the 21 of February 1917 the SS Mendi was struck almost in two and sunk killing a total of 607 black South Africans.

  1. What is being done around the world specifically to commemorate the First World War?

newspaper 6

In England: They are planting 800,246 poppies around the Tower of London, one for each British fatality in the war. YS Crawford Butler planted the first on the 17th of July.

In Australia: The Australian War Memorial Committee decided to redevelop their World War One exhibition.

In Belgium: To honour both the military and civilian victims and to include a citizen focus in the commemorations, the government has chosen three highly symbolic locations, each reflecting different aspects of the war: Liège, Ypres (Ieper) and Brussels to hold their own respective ceremonies.

In New Zealand: A First World War memorial plaque is being put together for a Marae complex in Kennedy Bay, Coromandel.

In Canada: A ceremony was held at the National War Memorial and then continued at the Canadian War Museum. Also, in Halifax, all the lights were shut off at all major landmarks.


What was life like for women, children and men who stayed at home? – Joel and Peter


SOURCE A: A woman working in an ammunition factory.


SOURCE B: A group of women who assisted as nurses during World War I. They are standing in a patients’ room. This source again shows that women did help during the war and that it wasn’t only the men who fought on the front line.


SOURCE C: A poster encouraging men to go and join the army. This has been used as it shows how much the army needed lots of men to join.


SOURCE D: A picture which a child drew at school showing the Zeppelin bombing. This shows that the war also had a major impact on the children living at the time.


SOURCE E: A white feather which the men, who didn’t go to war, had to wear. This feather was given to the men who didn’t join the army. They were considered as cowards.


SOURCE F: A mother and a child wearing gas masks. This shows how the children suffered during the war and how tough it must have been for them.

SOURCE G: A newspaper article on the Zeppelin Air Raid in London in January 1915. Innocent civilians died after this air raid and shows the impact of the war on the people.

SOURCE G: A newspaper article on the Zeppelin Air Raid in London in January 1915. Innocent civilians died after this air raid and shows the impact of the war on the people.




As seen is Sources A and B, women also played a role in World War I. In Source A, we see a woman working in an ammunition factory. A lot of the women worked in these factories. These factories provided weapons to the men who were fighting out in the trenches. In Source B, we can see women working as nurses during World War I. Many men got injured while fighting out at war. This making nursing a very important job during the war. Women also had to takeover the jobs of the men who were fighting in the war. This included jobs such as; bank clerks, ticket sellers, elevator operators, chauffeurs, street car conductors, railroad track walkers, block operators, draw bridge attendants. They also worked in machine shops, steel mills, airplane works, boot blacking and also worked as farmers.


As we can see in Source C, men were encouraged to join the army and go out and fight at war. Though there were a lot of men who didn’t want to go out and risk their lives in battle. They were targeted by the people as being cowards. They chose to rather stay at home. They were targeted by the people as being cowards. As seen in Source E, these men were given white feathers and were often treated very harshly by the public. They were often refused service by shops and pubs.


Children were also impacted by the war. They had to deal with loss of family members and friends. Many children had to live without a father because most of the men were out fighting at war. The war was a disruption to home life and schooling for the children. In Source C, it shows a picture which a child drew at school. It shows the Zeppelin attack. This proves that World War I had a major on children.


Many challenges were faced during and after World War I. The people had to deal with the loss of friends and family members. People always had the fear of having an air raid on their hometown. The countries that were involved in the war had to pay for all the damages. Germany had to pay the most money towards all the damages that they caused. This caused a dramatic drop in their economy in the 1920s. The countries also had to pay money to the families of the casualties after the war.


While at war, the soldiers would have saved a lot of money. This is because they wouldn’t have the same everyday expenses which they normally had. This included things like food, transport, clothing etc. With all the soldiers being away at war, the towns that the women and children lived in would have been much less crowded and would have given all the people a lot more space.