by Robert Nichols
It is midday; the deep trench glares….
A buzz and blaze of flies….
The hot wind puffs the giddy airs….
The great sun rakes the skies.
No sound in all the stagnant trench
Where forty standing men
Endure the sweat and grit and stench,
Like cattle in a pen.
Sometimes a sniper’s bullet whirs
Or twangs the whining wire,
Sometimes a soldier sighs and stirs
As in hell’s frying fire.
From out a high, cool cloud descends
An aeroplane’s far moan,
The sun strikes down, the thin cloud rends….
The black speck travels on.
And sweating, dizzed, isolate
In the hot trench beneath,
We bide the next shrewd move of fate
Be it of life or death.
I am using this as a source because it is primary source telling how it must have felt for the men in the battle field. Robert Nichols severed in the front-line and I think it would be a trust worthy source it was a first-hand experience he was writing from
- This poem was published in 1917.
- It was written in Britain
- It was produced by Robert Nichols a war poet and author who served on the front-line
The poem was written to make people aware of what was happening on the front-line. Source B
Found on: http://www.ww1propaganda.com/world-war-1-posters/women-ww1?page=4
I am using this source because it shows that women where in needed great numbers to work as nurses during the World War One. It shows us that women also had to work on the battle front as nurses for the wounded soldiers.
- Published/created in 1917
- It was published in New York
- It was published by John H with Eggers Co.
- The purpose was to recruit nurses to help with wounded soldiers from the war.
Found on: http://anzacs-roleofwoman-ww1.weebly.com/role-of-nurses.html This source shows both the conditions that the men were enduring during the war as well as the fact that women also worked on the front-line.
- There is no historical context of this picture however the website is Australian speaks of 3000 Australian nurses being positioned wherever service was needed.
Video source of French Nurse : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYJS1_g-zpo
I found this source very inspirational as it shows truly the emotion that was bough to people during the time of World War Historical Context
- The Video was posted on YouTube on 1/10/09 by Russell Tarr. I think the video was made because the nurse experienced the situation and the circumstances war caused for everyone. I think that her emotional response is something that you can’t see in other sources and that it can give us a lot more information on the effects war had on men and women.
- The nurse was a visitor at the hospital in 1916
Source E1 and E2
These photographs show us exactly the conditions of the trenches where the soldiers fought from.
- E1 Unknown
- E2 A German trench occupied by British Soldiers, July 1916
What was life like for women and children on the battle front?
Source F shows us a young boy digging trenches. There were many young boys who went to war and ended up digging trenches. This was because they lacked the skill to fight or were physically unable to carry weapons. The legal age to go to war was eighteen but this was often looked towards the end of the war because of the country’s need for soldiers. In the beginning of the war however children were enthusiastic to join the war and went to enlist regardless. If turned away they would return with forged documents. Their motivation often originated through propaganda.
Children who stayed at home were also affected drastically. In Source I we see a child saying goodbye to his father who is going to war. Many children lost their brothers and father to war. Children had no understanding of what was happening or why. With bombs constantly going off and mothers leaving to work the lives of children was changed. There was also food shortages and rationing and so children became malnourished and there was an increase in disease and even fatality at home away from the front lines.
Women staying at home had to replace men in the work force for example in factories seen in source G, and as farm workers, seen in source I. The country still needed food from farms and arms for the war from factories. Most of the men were at the front as therefor this vital work was left to the women. This resulted in many changes for women. Socially women had to change, weather they were nobility or servants they had to work together. They lost husbands, sons and brothers, which meant they had to cope emotionally to great change and loss. Women had to support their families alone because they no long had support from men.
Source C shows us that women away from home who worked as nurses had to deal with terrible conditions watching men die and not having the skill to help. Source B shows how many women were needed away from home. These women were often giving very little training and learnt on the jobs. These women left there families at home which meant children were left without mothers and fathers leaving them even more eager to enlist as said previously
How is World War One relevent to us today?
HOW THE FIRST WORLD WAR IS REMEMBERED TODAY..
The Great War is one of the most important events in Britain’s history. The heavy casualties left a huge psychological impact on the British people. They were determined to remember the men and women who served in the Great War. This began with a Peace Parade in July 1919 and then a ceremony every year on Armistice Day. This was 11 November, the day the fighting ended. From 1919 onwards, many monuments, ceremonies and other memorials in different parts of the world have remembered the dead. Acts of remembrance continue today. Armistice Day is now called Remembrance Day. At 11 am, people all over the country stand in silence to remember the dead of the Great War and all other wars.
HOW THE MEMORIAL STATUES AND THE POPPIES PLAY A ROLE IN THE FIRST WW…
The Liberty Memorial, located in Kansas City, Missouri, USA, is a memorial to the soldiers who died in World War I and houses The National World War I Museum, as designated by the United States Congress in 2004. Groundbreaking commenced November 1, 1921, and the city held a site dedication. The memorial was completed and dedicated on November 11, 1926.On September 21, 2006, Secretary of the Interior Dirk Kempthorne declared Liberty Memorial a National Historic Landmark. The National Liberty Monument is a proposed national memorial to honor the more than 5,000 enslaved and free persons of African descent who served as soldiers or sailors or provided civilian assistance during the American Revolutionary War. The memorial is an outgrowth of a failed effort to erect a Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial, which was authorized in 1986 but whose memorial foundation dissolved in 2005. Congress authorized the National Liberty Monument in January 2013.
The National Liberty Monument..
The remembrance poppy has been used since 1920 to commemorate soldiers who have died in war. Inspired by the World War I poem “In Flanders Fields”, they were first used by the American Legion to commemorate American soldiers who died in that war (1914–1918). They were then adopted by military veterans’ groups in parts of the former British Empire: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Today, they are mainly used in the UK and Canada to commemorate their servicemen and women who have been killed in all conflicts since 1914. There, small artificial poppies are often worn on clothing for a few weeks until Remembrance Day/Armistice Day 11 November. Poppy wreaths are also often laid at war memorials. This is the poppies that are worn to commemorate solders.
The poem the inspired the use of poppies in the remembrance of WW1 adn the pins that are woen to commemorate soldiers.
WHY ITS IMPORTANT FOR SOUTH AFRICA TO COMMEMORATE THE FIRST WW1 …
The response to the outbreak of the First World War in South elicited different responses from a number of organisations as well as from different sections of the South African society. The South African government under the leadership of general Louis Botha immediately declared the Union’s support for Great Britain and committed itself to come to the defence of the British empire. In this it was supported by the majority of English-speaking settlers, who identified completely with the British Empire. Afrikaners, however, was deeply divided over the war, and a section led by general Koos De la Rey went into open rebellion against the government over the invasion of South West Africa. Amongst African, Coloureds and Indians the elite sections declared their loyalty and became actively involved in recruitment drives among their communities. Featured here are some of the responses.
WHAT IS BEING DONE AROUND THE WORLD SPECIFILY TO COMMEMORATE THE CENTENARY…
Over 1000 poppies will be grown and the church receive a major grant for repairs. A candle-lit vigil of prayer and an act of solemn reflection to mark the centenary of the start of the First World War will be held in Westminster Abbey.
Micahella and Zizi